It is clear that we do not believe that animals, which have been kept in captivity for more than ten generations, can be set free without a long preliminary stage in a semi-reserve. It is also evident that their general constitution, their degree of being domesticated and their social behaviour has to be taken into account before they can be released into the wild.

We therefore strongly believe that the “Przewalski Horse Draft Global Conservation Plan” will fail if it is not radically changed. From the early beginning of our project and our dealings with Przewalski horses we have shared with others the results of our experiences (see list of references); it is therefore rather odd that these results are not taken into account or are presented as new findings.

For the sake of the Przewalski horses we hope that this will change soon.


ASHTON,D.G.; JONES, D.M. (1989): Some diseases of the Przewalski horse, Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski horse, Rotterdam, The Foundation for the Preservation of the Przewalski horse, 149-164..

ASHTON, D.G. (1984): A survey of diseases of the Przewalski horse: Equus, Band 2 Heft 2, ed. DATHE, E., Berlin, 179-188.

VAN DEN BERG, A.(1989): Het laatste wild paard. R.H.L. te Dronten, 1-26.

BERGEN, J.(1986): Wild horses of the Great Basin. University of Chicago Press, 1-326.

BOEREMA, J (1984): Onderzoek naar Przewalski paarden op de “Noorderheide”, R. H. L. te Groningen, 1-50.

BOUMAN, J (1977): The future of Przewalski’s horses in captivity, Int. Zoo Ybk, 17, 62-70.

BOUMAN, J.;Bos, H. (1979): Two symptoms of inbreeding depression in Przewalski horses in captivity. In: Genetics and hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski horse, Rotterdam, The foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski horse, 111-118.

BOUMAN, J (1980): Eine Analyse der Stammbuch-Daten und einige Konklusionen hinsichtlich der zukünftigen Züchtung der Przewalskipferde in Gefangenschaft. Equus 2, Heft 1, ed. DATHE, h., Berlin, 21-42.

BOUMAN, I.; BOUMAN, J (1989): Gefangenschaft schaftszucht des Przewalskipferdes: Überleben der Przewalski-ähnlichen Abkömmlinge oder die Rettung des Pferdes? in: Die Illusion der Arche Noah. Echo Verlag, Göttingen, 269-307.

Bouman, I., and J.G. Bouman. 1990. Report on the semi-reserves project IUCN/WWF no. 3077. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Preservation of the Przewalski Horse. Zoologischer Garten Leipzig:184-190.

DOBRORUKA, L.J. (1961): Eine Verhaltensstudie des Przewalski-Urwildpferdes (Equus przewalski Poliakov, 1881) in dem Zoologischen Garten Prag. Equus 1: 89-104.

DIJKSTRA, S. (1984): Chromosomen onderzoek aan 15 Przewalski paarden, Vakgroep Functionele Morfologie van de fakulteit Diergeneeskunde, Utrecht, 1-22.

FEH, C. (1988): Social Behavior and Relationships of Przewalski Horses in Dutch Semi-Reserves. In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 304-325.

HERRE, W. (1967): Gedanken zur Erhaltung des Wildpferdes, Equus Przewalskii Poljakov 1881: Equus, Band 1, Heft 2, ed. DATHE, E. Berlin, 304-325.

KEIPER, R. R. (1989): Social behaviour of captive and free-ranging Przewalski horses. In: Abstracts of the 21st Int. Ethological Conf. Utrecht, 93.

KIRKPATRICK, J. F.; TURNER, J. W. (1986): Comparative reproductive biology of North American feral horses: Journal of Equine veterinary science special issue, vol. 6, 5, 224-230.

VOLF, J. (1967): Der Einfluß der Domestikation auf die Formentwicklung des Unterkiefers beim Pferd, Equus 1, 2, ed. DATHE, Berlin, 401-406.

VOLF, J. (1989): Die “wilde” oder gezielte Aufzucht von Przewalskipferden (Equus przewalskii Polj., 1881)? In: Zool. Garten N. F., 59, 402-410.

WARING, G. H. (1983): Horse behaviour. Noyes publ., New Jersey, USA, 1-292.